Contrastive Conjunction and Modal Perfect

Contrastive Conjunction

Mr. Jack : What is the result of the OSIS meeting?
Edward  : A few members want an indirect election in choosing the new OSIS chairperson, Sir. However, most members want a direct election.
Mr. Jack : OK. I’ll discuss that later, with the other teachers.

The sentences in bold contrasts two ideas. It uses a contrastive conjunction (however). Contrastive conjunctions are used to link two ideas or statements that are considered to be different. The following are some contrastive conjunctions :
1.     But, still, yet, although, though, even though, whereas, while
These conjunctions combine two clauses which are/opposite/contrast one to another. Examples :
·         Donny is short, but he is strong.
·         Although Bella is an artist, she doesn’t ignore her studies.
·         Mr. David is rich, yet he is unhappy.
2.     However, nevertheless
Nevertheless is very formal. In a less formal style, we can use conjunctions like but or yet.\
“Nevertheless” and “however” don’t combine two clauses. They are used to emphasize the fact that the point expressed by the second sentence contrasts with the first. In writing, they are separated from the rest of the sentences by a comma. Examples :
·         I advised Tom to correct his bad behavior. Nevertheless, he didn’t take my advice.
·         It seems that we will fail in the contest. However, we will do our best.
3.     Despite/in spite of
“Despite” and “in spite of” are always followed by noun or noun phrases. Examples :
·         Diana is still doing her homework despite being very tired.
·         The old farmer works hard in his field in spite of fierce sun.

Modal Perfect

Different from modals, all modal perfect, refer to the past.
Pattern : modal + have + past participle (V3)
The following are some modal perfect including their meanings and examples :
Modal Perfect
could have
We had ability to do something in the past, but we didn’t do it.
The report is considered nonfactual. Reny could have interviewed some people before writing it.
would have
We wanted to do something,but we didn’t do it in the end.
I would have finished it last night. Now I am still doing  my work.
might have
It is possible that something happened in the past, but we aren’t sure.
We did not see Andra at the meeting. He might have forgotten it.
should have
It was the right thing to do, but we didn’t do it.
Alex had negative thoughts about you. You should have told him the truth.
We expected something to happen, but it didn’t.
Lina is disappointed. Her father should have bought her a bicycle.
must have
We are almost sure something happened in the past.
My youngest sister is very happy. She must have got the doll she longed for some time.
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