Kamis, 13 Desember 2012

Persuading and Encouraging, Preventing Someone from Doing Something

Dan yang terakhir materi yang akan dibahas adalah Persuading and Encouraging, Preventing Someone from Doing Something


1. Persuading

    a. Definition
Persuading is an expression to persuade someone. So, someone want to do something as like as persuader’s request.


    b. Expressions of Persuading
  • Are you really sure you can’t/couldn’t...?
  • Don’t be so silly!
  • I really think it would be a pity if we didn’t...
  • Are you quite sure you won’t consider...?
  • Buy me this one, Mom, please ?
  • I really think you’d do well to...
  • Oh, come on!
  • Can’t I persuade you to...
  • Let’s join... You won’t regret it.
  • I’m begging you. Will you...?
  • Just this once!
  • How I can persuade you to…?
  • Won't you… Please?
  • Why don't you…?
  • You're not going to let me down, are you?
  • Not even for me/for my sake?

2. Encouraging



    a. Definition
Encouraging is an expressions to give someone support or motivation to do something so he/she can achieve the goals.

    b. How to Encourage Someone
If your goal is to learn how to encourage someone, follow the quick below guide:
  1.  Praise
  2. Show people their strength
  3. Show appreciation
  4. Believe in them
  5. Be a positive role model

 c. Expressions of Encouraging
  • Don’t worry. I’m sure you’ll do better the next time.
  • You have my support.
  • You’re doing very well.
  • You like it? Go for it!
  • It wouldn’t hurt.
  • Keep at it!
  • Stick to it!
  • Give it a shot.
  • Come on. This is not the end of the    world.
  • We feel you should go ahead.
  • I’m sure you’ll win !
  • Go on, you can do it!
  • Don’t give up!
  • Keep it up!
  • No pain, no gain.
  • This is for your best ..
  • I'm sure you will pass ...


3. Preventing Someone from Doing Something



    a. Definition
Preventing is an expressions to prohibit someone to  do  something that he/she don’t want.

    b. Expression of Preventing
  • You mustn’t ...!
  • You shouldn’t (really) ...
  • You’d better not ...
  • (For godness sake) Don’t look!
  • You can’t ...!
  • You’re not (really) supposed to ...
  • I don’t really think you should ...
  • Stop! Wait! (Or other imperatives)

Admitting Mistakes and Makes promise

Admitting Mistakes and Makes promise

1. Admitting Mistakes


Mistake is a misunderstanding or misconception or an error in action, calculation, opinion, or judgement caused by poor reasoning, carelessness, insufficient knowledge, etc.
When you have a mistake to someone, you need to plead your mistake, so the problem will be clear. 
Admitting Mistake is the way you to admit and ask for a sorry of your mistake.

Benefits of Admitting Mistakes:
  • It demonstrates your courage.
  • It demonstrates your humanity.
  • It engenders more trusting relationships.
  • It creates greater organisational value.
Admitting Mistakes Expressions:
  • I’m sorry. It’s my fault.
  • You’re right. I’m fully responsible for this matter.
  • I admit what I’ve done is wrong.
  • I realize I’ve made mistakes.
  • Yes, I take the blame.
  • It’s my mistakes. Forgive me.
  • It shouldn’t be like this. Forgive me.
  • I never intended it that way.
Responding:
  •  Don’t mention it.
  • That would be okay.
  • Just take it easy.
  • Let it go.
  • Forget it.
  • That’s fine.
  • I give you sorry.
  • It doesn’t matter for me.


2. Making Promises

A promise is a commitment by someone to do or not do something or a declaration that something will or will not be done, given, etc.
Making Promise is the expression how express your promise to someone.

Before make a Promise:
  • Think about the promise before you make it.
  • Be honest about your capabilities.
  • Talk about the promise with another person.
  • Watch the things that you promised.
  • Keep your mouth shut.

Making Promises Expressions :
  • I swear.
  • I promise.
  • Trust me, I can.
  • I will pick you up.
  • I assure you that I will return it on time.
  • I won’t go, I swear to stay here.
  • I swear I will not let you down.
  • Don’t worry, I’ll see you before I leave.
Respond a Promise:

  • Thank you.
  • I believe you.
  • Let me be assured.
  • Okay.
  • Just let the time to answer.
  • I wish you can keep on your promise
  • I’ll wait for you.

Complaining and Giving Instruction

Complaining and Giving Instruction

Komplain dan memberikan instruksi kali ini kita akan membahas materi berkaitan tentang kedua itu, langsung aja disimak :D 
1. Complaining


  • To express feelings of pain, dissatisfaction, or resentment.
  • To make a formal accusation or bring a formal charge.
complaint is…
Complaints are expressions of "displeasure or annoyance" in response to an action that is seen by the speaker as unfavorable.

Making a complaint:
  • I do wish you could….
  • Excuse me, I’m afraid… 
  • I wish you wouldn’t mind
  • Would you mind (doing)….?
  • Well, it is good for you to….
  • (Honestly!) I’m fed up with 
  • I wonder if you could help me…..
  • I’m sorry to have to say this, but….
  • Look, I’m sorry to trouble you, but…. 
  • (Well,) this is the most unsatisfactory.
  • Wouldn’t it be a good idea to/ not to….
  • I’ve got a bit of a problem here, you see…… 
  • Excuse me, there appears to be something wrong…
  • Excuse me, there seems to be something wrong with… 

Responding a complaint:
Positive response to complaints:
  • Oh, I’m sorry about that. 
  • can’t tell you how sorry I am.
  • wish it never happened. 
  • Oh dear, I’m really sorry. 
  • I’m so sorry, I didn’t realize.
  • just don’t know what to say.
  • I'm so sorry, but this will never occur / happen again.
  • I'm sorry, we promise never to do the same mistake again.
  • I'm really sorry; we'll do our utmost/best not to do the same mistake again.
 Negative response to complaints:
  • Sorry there is nothing we can do about it.
  • I'm afraid, there isn't much we can do about it.
  • We are sorry but the food is just alright.
Delaying a complaint:
  • I suggest you leave it with us and we’ll see what can be done.
  • suggest you leave it with us and we’ll see what we can do.
  • I’m afraid the manager/boss isn’t in at the moment. Could you call later?
  • I’m afraid we can’t help you at the moment. Could you leave your contact phone number and address? We will contact you soon. 
Rejecting a complaint:
  • Well, I’m afraid there is nothing we can do about it actually. 
  • Well, I’m afraid there isn’t much we can do about it.


2. Giving Instruction


   
     a.Definition
       Giving instruction is an expression for give or ask somebody to do something that we want.
  •         The tense used in giving instruction is simple present.
  •         Giving instruction is releveance with procedure text
    b. Giving instruction are:
  1. 1. Command     

      Verb (+ O).
 e.g:Watch out, come here, etc.
      Please + V (+ O).
                      e.g:Please clean your room.
      V (+ O) + Please.
                       e.g:Wash this towel, please.
  1. 2. Prohibition

      Don’t + V (+ O).
e.g:Don’t close it!
      Don’t + V (+ O) + Please.
e.g:Don’t be noise,please.
      Would you mind not + V-ing (+ O).
e.g:Would you mind not reading my book.

    c. Kinds of giving instruction:
  1.      . Verb 1, e.g:
  •         Wash your hand.
  •         Sit down.
     2. Be + adjective, e.g:
  •         Be your self.
  •         Be a good student.
  •         Be happy.    
     3. Infinitive without to
  •         Close the door!
  •         Open the window!
  •         Turn off the computer!
  •         Move the chair!
     4. Don’t + V-infinitive, e.g:
  •          Don’t armb!
  •          Don’t disturb!
  •          Don’t touch!
  •          Don’t kill him.
  •          Don’t cry.
     5. No + V-ing, e.g:
  •          No smooking!
  •          No swimming!
  •          No parking!
  •          No catching !
  •          No diving !
Asking for Instructions:
  •          How do you (do this)?
  •         What is the best way to . . . ?
  •          How do I go about it?
  •         What do you suggest?
  •         How do you suggest I proceed?
  •         What is the first step?
Giving Instructions Sequencing:
  •         First, (you) . . .
  •         Then, (you) . . .
  •         Next, (you) . . .
  •         Lastly, (you) . . .
Starting out:
  •         Before you begin, (you should . . .)
  •         The first thing you do is . . . .
  •          I would start by . . .
  •          The best place to begin is . . .
  •          To begin with,
Continuing:
  •         After that,
  •         The next step is to . . .
  •         The next thing you do is . . .
  •         Once you've done that, then . . .
  •         When you finish that, then . . .
Finishing:
  •         The last step is . . .
  •         The last thing you do is . . .
  •          In the end,
  •          When you've finished,
  •          When you've completed all the steps

Explanation Text

Explanation Text 

Kali ini kita akan mempelajari kalimat penjelas

What is Explanation?
1.      Definition and purposes of Explanation
Explanation is a text which tells processes relating to forming of natural, social, scientific and cultural phenomena. Explanation text is to say ‘why’ and ‘how’ of the forming of the phenomena. It is often found in science, geography and history text books.

2.      Generic structure of Explanation
  • General statement; stating the phenomenon issues which are to be explained.
  • Sequenced explanation; stating a series of steps which explain the phenomena.
3.      Language Feature
  • Featuring generic participant; sun, rain, etc
  • Using chronological connection; to begin with, next, etc
  • Using passive voice pattern
  • Using simple present tense
4.      Examples and structures of the text
Making Paper from Woodchips
A general statementWoodchipping is a process used to obtain pulp and paper products from forest trees.

The woodchipping process begins when the trees are cut down in a selected area of the forest called a coupe.
A sequencedexplanation ofNext the tops and branches of the trees are cut out and then the logs are taken to the mill.
why or how something occursAt the mill the bark of the logs is removed and the logs are taken to a chipper which cuts them into small pieces called woodchips.
The woodchips are then screened to remove dirt and other impurities.At this stage they are either exported in this form or changed into pulp by chemicals and heat.

The pulp is then bleached and the water content is removed.
ClosingFinally the pulp is rolled out to make paper.
Example of Explanation Text
  1. A.     Tsunami
The term of “tsunami” comes from the Japanese which means harbour (“tsu”) and wave (“nami”). A tsunamigk is a series of waves generated when water in a lake or the sea is rapidly displaced on a massive scale.
A tsunami can be generated when the sea floor abruptly deforms and vertically displaces the overlying water. Such large vertical movements of the earth’s crust can occur at plate boundaries.
Subduction of earthquakes are particularly effective in generating tsunamis, and occur where denser oceanic plates slip under continental plates.
As the displaced water mass moves under the influence of gravity to regain its equilibrium, it radiates across the ocean like ripples on a pond.
Tsunami always bring great damage. Most of the damage is caused by the huge mass of water behind the initial wave front, as the height of the sea keeps rising fast and floods powerfully into the coastal area.
(simplified from www.panda.org)
  1. B.      How Day and Night Happen
The sun seems to rise in the morning, crosses the sky during the day and sets at night. However the sun does not actually move around the earth. Earth’s turning on its axis makes it look as if the sun is moves.
The earth makes a complete turn on its axis for 24 hours. It is called as rotation. It causes day and night. The earth also moves around the sun. It takes 365 days or a year. This process is called revolution. The revolution process causes the changes of the season
  1. C.      Why Summer Daylight is Longger than Winter Daylight
In the summer, the amount of daylight that we get is more than we get in winter. This is not because as much people think we are closer to the sun but because of the tilt of the earth.
The earth is actually closer to the sun in winter than it is in summer but you would be forgiven for thinking that this can not be true after looking out of your window on a cold and frosty morning.
It seems strange that as the earth get closer to the sun during its orbit then the amount of daylight that we get decrease. But that is the case. It is the tilt of the earth that determine the amount of daylight that we get and so the length of time that for us the sun is above the horizon.
 (Taken from: www.ictteachers.co.uk)
Generic Structure Analysis
General statement; stating the phenomenon whic daylight in summer is longer than in winter.
Explanation; it is the tilt of the earth that determines the amount of daylight not the distance of the earth from the sun.
Language Feature Analysis
Focusing generic participant; daylight.
Using chronological connection; then, so, but.
Using pasive voice; you would be forgiven.
Using present tense; the earth is actually closer to the sun.

Asking about Possibilities, Expressing Curiosity and Desire, Expressing Views

begitu banyak yang harus kita pelajari tentang bahasa inggris jadi ini material selanjutnya.

1. Asking about Possibilities

Possibility is used when we are talking about the future, we often don't really know what will happen.

Expressing asking about possibilities:
  • Would it be possible for (somebody) to …?
  • Do you think it’s possible that ... ?
  • What possibility is there that ... ?
  • Is there any possibility that ... ?
  • What's the possibility of ... ?
  • What are the chances of ...?
  • Do you think you can…?
  • Is it possible that ... ?
  • Is it possible to ... ?
  • Are you capable of…?
Responding:
  • Yes, it is.
  • That’s possible.
  • Sure. It can be.
  •  I think so.
  • Perhaps.
  •  It's possible.
  • Not a chance!
  • That's not possible.

2. Expressing Curiosity and Desire
a. Expressing Curiosity


Curiosity is an emotion represents a drive to know new things.
Expressing curiosity is the expression how express curious about something or someone.

    Expressing Curiosity: 
  • I want to know...
  • I’m curios about...
  • I’m eager to know...
  • What I’d really like to find out is … 
  • I’d be very interested to know … 
  • I’ve been meaning to ask you. 
  • I’d like to know …
  • I wish I knew …
  • I’d love to know …
  • I wonder …
    Responding:
  • You can ask him in person.
  • Let’s find the answer.
  • I am also curios about it.
  • Let time show us the truth.


b. Expressing Desire


Desire is a sense of longing for a person or object or hoping for an outcome. When a person desires something or someone, their sense of longing is excited by the enjoyment or the thought of the item or person, and they want to take actions to obtain their goal.
  • I wish I could be...
  • I want to...
  • I’m interested in...
3. Expressing Views


  • I support your decision.
  • If I were you,...
  • Personally I believe…. 
  • In my view, …. 
  • It seems to me…. 
  • From my point of view…. 
  • I’d just like to say…. 
  • Well, to my mind this scene…. 
  • Personally, I consider…. 
  • To be perfectly frank…. 
  • If you ask my view about it, I will say that I agree with it.
Responding Agreement:
  • Thank you.
  • Of course.
  • You're absolutely right.
  • Yes, I agree.
  • I think so too.
  • That's a good point.
  • Exactly.
  • I don't think so either.
  • So do I.
  • I'd go along with that.
  • That's true.
  • Neither do I.
  • I agree with you entirely.
  • That's just what I was thinking.
  • I couldn't agree more. 
Responding Disagreement:
  • That's different.
  • I don't agree with you.
  • However…
  • That's not entirely true.
  • On the contrary…
  • I'm sorry to disagree with you, but…
  • Yes, but don't you think…
  • That's not the same thing at all.
  • I'm afraid I have to disagree.
  • I'm not so sure about that.
  • I must take issue with you on that.
  • It's unjustifiable to say that...